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Himawari satellite Philippines

The HIMAWARI-8 is a geo-stationary weather satellite, successor to Japan Meteorological Agency's Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) series. It was installed at PAGASA last December 2015. It is the most utilized satellite imagery in real time weather forecasting , tropical cyclone analysis and for research purposes as it generates. The Himawari-8 satellite, operated by our partners at the Japan Meteorological Agency, is closely monitoring Typhoon Surigae, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Bising. The above GeoColor imagery, captured as the sun rose on April 19, shows the storm approximately 370 miles East of the Philippines. The storm's maximum sustained winds rapidly intensified from 90 mp At an altitude of 36,000 km (22,000 miles), Japan's Himawari-8 satellite is in stationary orbit over New Guinea. It captures some truly amazing imagery of th..

Himawari Real-Time Image. The RGB composite imagery is produced by composing satellite images colored in red, green and blue. Details are refer to RGB Training Library (JMA website) . Select Area. Full Disk Australia Central Asia New Zealand Pacific Islands 1 Pacific Islands 2 Pacific Islands 3 Pacific Islands 4 Pacific Islands 5 Pacific. Imagery courtesy of the Japanese Meteorological Agency. Selected Himawari-8 sectors of interest are available below, but every pixel of Himawari-8 imagery is available in SLIDER.. Please visit our Himawari-8 Loops of Interest page.. Please note that some of the GeoColor products previously on this page will no longer be avalable here, but can be viewed in SLIDER Himawari-8 and -9 Meteorological Missions. JMA (Japanese Meteorological Agency) has operated the GMS (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite) and MTSAT (Multifunction Transport Satellite) series of satellites around the 140º east longitude to cover the East Asia and Western Pacific regions since 1977, and makes related contributions to the WMO's World Weather Watch (WWW) Program The Himawari-8 Real-time Web is an application via big-data technologies developed by the NICT Science Cloud project in NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology), Japan. Development is in collaboration with JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) and CEReS (Center of Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University)

PAGAS

LIVE weather of the Republic of the Philippines. Satellite images, radar, wind map The Japanese geostationary weather satellite Himawari-8 has been used by Philippine warning agencies for monitoring purposes for the past few years. Now, Filipinos can have faster access to near real-time satellite images from the Himawari-8 satellite through the DOST-Advanced Science and Technology Institute Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies. The prolonged period of rapid intensification continued overnight, and as of 12 UTC on 17 April Surigae had become a Category 5 Super Typhoon — 2.5-minute interval rapid scan Himawari-8 Infrared images (above) showed the well-defined eye as the storm tracked northwestward across the Philippine Sea (just east of the Philippines) Himawari-8 Live Satellite Imagery Portal. Launching History in the 21st Century. Credit: Lee Brandon-Cremer YouTube Channel. West Pacific Wide-View Imagery. Visible. Channel 4: AVN IR. Channel 4: Rainbow IR. Water Vapor. Northwest Pacific & Eastern Asia Imagery. Visible

This animation of Himawari-8 satellite images of Super Typhoon Goni toggles between two Geocolor views (one with borders added, the other without) and an infrared view. Geocolor imagery approximates the view that we might see from space. (Credit: Imagery from RAMMB/CIRA, animation by Tom Yulsman The Taal Volcano erupted in the Philippines around 0850 UTC on 12 January 2020. JMA Himawari-8 Red Visible (0.64 µm) and Clean Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images (above) displayed the volcanic cloud during the initial 3 hours post-eruption. Note the presence of a pronounced warm wake (red enhancement) downwind (north) of the summit of Taal — this appeared to be an Above. On Jan. 12, 2020, the Himawari-8 satellite captured an image of the Philippines during the aftermath of Taal Volcano's first volcanic eruption in over forty years. Eruptive activity, which has been occurring since 5:30 p.m. local time on Jan. 12, has generated steam-laden plumes up to nine miles tall, causing travel disruptions and extreme weather events in and around th Himawari-8 visible satellite image of Super Typhoon Haima (Lawin in the Philippines) east of Luzon, Philippines, on October 19, 2016, at 0250 UTC. (JMA via CIRA/RAMMB

More information and stunning imagery in our info-article: https://www.severe-weather.eu/recent-events/taal-volcano-update-big-eruption-likely-fa/Satellite i.. SFCweather. Himawari 8 satellite imagery courtesy of CIMSS Tropical Cyclones Group If you are looking for high resolution, photographic quality satellite imagery of hurricanes and other storms please visit NESDIS . General Satellite Status Messages, including Outages. General Imagery. GOES-E Full Disk and Composite Images. GOES-W Full Disk and Composite Images. METEOSAT Full Disk (East Atlantic/Africa) GOES Severe Storm Sector Himawari 8 (ひまわり8号) is a Japanese weather satellite, the 8th of the Himawari geostationary weather satellites operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency.The spacecraft was constructed by Mitsubishi Electric with assistance from Boeing, and is the first of two similar satellites to be based on the DS-2000 satellite bus. Himawari 8 entered operational service on 7 July 2015 and is the.

Typhoon Surigae Churns Near the Philippines NOAA

(D)ownload Loop as Animated GIF; Show/Hide Current (I)mage (A)dvanced Controls All (C)ontrols; Advanced Controls Keyboard shortcuts: Zoom in/out = Ctrl(+/-), Play/Stop = spacebar or 'p', all other shortcuts are the letter on each control surrounded by parenthesis. Sho(w) All Images Click buttons below to hide/show images; Experimental Products Disclaime Today, the Himawari-8 satellite is watching Super Typhoon Goni, which has been gaining strength as it heads toward the Philippines. With maximum sustained winds >170 mph, it is the equivalent of a major Category-5 Atlantic Hurricane These satellite images are generated by JQWeather using data from the Himawari-8 satellite operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency, through NOAA and Amazon. Each image is created from a combination of selected infrared and visible spectral bands of Himawari-8 data. Click on Info for more details. Philippines. Northwest Pacific

The Philippines, View From Himawari-8 Satellite [6 Day HD

RealVue™ Satellite for Philippines. This map displays the latest and most realistic view of Earth from space, as taken from weather satellites. It provides a detailed view of clouds, weather. HIMAWARI Philippines. Among the best-selling collections from HIMAWARI are the Sorrel 13 Laptop Girls Backpack BP(1881)-Nude Pink, Petunia 3-Way Sling Bag(Ss913)-Cute Pink and Buttercup Sling Bag(HM188XS-28)-Coffee Brown. Do not reach too deep into your pockets! With just ₱ 495.00 - ₱ 3,765.00, you can purchase HIMAWARI's exquisite.

Philippines orders evacuation as strongest typhoon in 2020

Meteorological Satellite Center (MSC) Himawari Real-Time

  1. Standby. JMA began operation of Himawari-8 on 7 July 2015 as a replacement for MTSAT-2 (also known as Himawari-7). Himawari-9 started backup operation on 10 March 2017. Both satellites are located in orbit at around 140.7 degrees east, and will observe the East Asia and Western Pacific regions for a period of 15 years
  2. Philippines Weather News - The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has successfully launched Himawari-8. The new weather satellite is in orbit since October 7, 2014. JMA also has modified their 3 hourly isobar maps. We have updated our weather pages. The new isobar map is a bit more compressed. To make it more readable we've colored a map.
  3. time step - 20 April. Surigae strengthened at a pace that was double the rate needed to qualify for rapid intensification (jumping by more than 160 km/h in a day and a half), and its 190-mph peak winds were stronger than Hurricane Dorian, which ravaged the Bahamas at the start of September 2019
  4. Himawari A meteorological satellite Floodwaters in 2016 (southern Thailand) After large-scale typhoon in 2013 (Philippines) After large-scale typhoon in 2018 (Philippines) Himawari 8/9 (Japanese meteorological satellite) • Launched in 2014 • Operation since 2015 • World highest equipment
  5. Bagtasa, who monitors pollution in the Philippines through aerosol optical depth (AOD) recorded by the Himawari satellite, observed a significant drop in the pollution in the National Capital Region and its neighboring province of Bulacan for the second half of March, or the start of the enhanced community quarantine in Luzon, compared to.

Super Typhoon Haima takes aim on the Philippines between Oct 17 and 18, 2016 in this animation of images from the Himawari-8 satellite. (Source: RAMMB/NOAA/CIRA) In just a matter of hours, Super Typhoon Haima is forecast to cut viciously into the northeastern coast of Luzon in the Philippines This is the first and only crowd-sourcing weather app in the Philippines. Download now on Google play store. Satellite visible image. Visible image of the Himawari Satellite for the whole Asia-Pacific region Please note that since this is a visible channel image, nighttime images will appear dark. To see infrared channel, click here Satellite imagery from the Himawari-8 IR satellite captured the Taal volcano eruption in the Philippines. In the short video, the island of Luzon can be seen quite calm until a sudden burst spewed. As such, the colorized infrared band of the Himawari-8 weather satellite imagery is now displayed in the Project NOAH website . Download : Download high-res image (575KB) Download : Download full-size image; Fig. 4. Himawari-8 weather satellite view of the Philippines and surrounding seas

In 2014, a new-generation meteorological satellite, Himawari-8, which carried a newly developed sensor, the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI), was launched and entered service in July 2015 (Japan Meteorological Agency 2015a). This instrument enabled the collection of very high-frequency thermal observations that had never before been obtained An image captured yesterday by a camera aboard Japan's Himawari-8 satellite shows the storm. It was taken by the satellite's Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). The satellite, along with the image, takes visible light and infrared images of the Asia-Pacific region, providing important data for geostationary coverage Himawari-8 data assimilated simulation enables 10-minute updates of rain and flood predictions. Using the power of Japan's K computer, scientists from the RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science and collaborators have shown that incorporating satellite data at frequent intervals-ten minutes in the case of this study-into weather prediction models can significantly improve the. Himawari-8 and -9 Meteorological Missions. Spacecraft Launch Mission Status Sensor Complement Ground Segment References. JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) has operated the GMS (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite) and MTSAT (Multifunction Transport Satellite) series of satellites around the 140º east longitude to cover the East Asia and Western Pacific regions since 1978, and makes related.

Eruption of the Mayon Volcano in the Philippines « CIMSS

Apr 15-28. Figure 3. Aerosol Optical thickness from Himawari-1 satellite data products. Graph generated for Research purposes, contact Dr. Gerry Bagtasa for more details. gbagtasa@iesm.upd.edu.ph Car emission is a big contributor, but not the only contributor to NCR pollution, Dr. Bagtasa said The Taal volcano in the Philippines woke from a 43 year long slumber last week and a satellite captured the entire event from space. The eruption was recorded by Japan's Himawari-8 satellite. Images from Japan's Himawari satellite network, used by the Philippine weather bureau for monitoring, show levels of what's known as aerosol optical depth that corresponds with lower PM2.5. GSMAP shows the satellite-estimated precipitation. This displays 5 datasets: the current GSMAP estimate, and the GSMAP estimate for 1hr, 3hr, 6hr, and 12hrs. If these satellite images are to be used, please include the following as usage disclosure, Use of the Himawari/GSMAP images are limited to non-profit purposes, such as research and. The eruption was captured by Japan's Himawari 8 weather satellite. Hundreds of thousands of residents in a 15-kilometre lockdown zone were evacuated, including 30,000 from the volcanic island itself

Super Typhoon Goni Churns Toward the Philippines as the

Japan's Himawari-8 satellite gave us a glimpse of the future over the weekend when in captured this amazing satellite loop of Super Typhoon Noul as it approached the northern Philippines In 2017, Himawari project has established the Himawari satellite real-time mirror site in the Thailand using JGN international circuits and high-speed data communication protocols. And in the following year, it has established in Philippines as well. The web access for the site in 2018 was 2,690,000 PV, data utilization by researcher was 22 per. Figure 3. An illustration of Diwata-2, a sun-synchronous orbiting microsatellite with Japan's geostationary satellite, Himawari-8. According to the weather bulletin released by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services and Administration (PAGASA) at 2:00 p.m. on December 2, Tisoy had maximum sustained winds of 150 kph, validating the estimate of STAMINA4Space The NOAA said in a statement: On Jan. 12, 2020, the Himawari-8 satellite captured an image of the Philippines during the aftermath of Taal Volcano's first volcanic eruption in over forty years

'Bagyong Vinta' PAGASA latest weather update December 22

RAMMB: RAMSDIS Online - Himawari-8 Imager

The Himawari (ひまわり, sunflower) geostationary satellites, operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), support weather forecasting, tropical cyclone tracking, and meteorology research. Most meteorological agencies in East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia and New Zealand use the satellites for their own weather monitoring and forecasting operations NSRDB Data Downloads. Freely available downloads of The National Solar Radiation Database. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a serially complete collection of meteorological and solar irradiance data sets for the United States and a growing list of international locations. The data are publicly available at no cost to the user NSFW TALISAY, PHILIPPINES — The eruption of Taal volcano in the Philippines was so big that it was visible from space. Japanese satellite Himawari-8 captured a series of images from space showing plumes of smoke from the volcano that erupted on January 12, according to Live Science Philippines orders evacuation as strongest typhoon in 2020 nears. With sustained winds and gusts of up to 265 kph (164 mph), Typhoon Goni is the strongest typhoon to hit the Philippines since. Himawari-8/RAMMB imagery. Super Typhoon Mangkhut was seen on Japanese satellite sensors Tuesday night as it made its approach towards northern Philippines where it is expected to hit Friday, September 14. The tropical cyclone is currently packing maximum sustained winds of 259 kilometers per hour with gusts reaching almost 315 kph, according.

Satellite image/Himawari IR1 via Pagasa. MANILA, Philippines — The hot and humid weather experienced in most parts of the country on Wednesday is expected to continue well into the coming days. This Jan. 12, 2020, image made available by Himawari-8 IR satellite via the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), shows the eruption of Taal volcano, south of Manila, Philippines Weather satellite for military operations cyclone noul roaches the philippines typhoon vongfong also known as ambo satellite imagery s office of Dost Asti Provides Faster Access To Anese Satellite ImagesHimawari 8 Real Time NictWindy Wind Map Weather ForecastPhilippines Monster Typhoon Kammuri Poses Serious Threat To Island Nation Gulf NewsLive Earth Map 2020 Satellite Street Vie by Jojo Malig, ABS-CBNnews.com. Posted at Jul 08 2015 04:43 AM | Updated as of Jul 08 2015 01:17 PM. Share. Faceboo

Himawari-8 and 9 - Satellite Missions - eoPortal Director

Smoke off the west coast of Borneo and dueling tropical cyclones in the Philippine Sea are shown in this color image from the Advanced Himawari Imager aboard the JAXA Himawari-8 satellite, from. Weather information for Atami City and Numazu City, Shizuoka Prefecture -Portal-(6 July 2021) Tokyo Climate Center: TCC News No. 64 (18 June 2021) ; RSMC Tokyo - Typhoon Center Technical Review No. 23 (20 April 2021) ; Tokyo Climate Center: TCC News No. 63 (9 March 2021) ; The top page and disaster mitigation information contents of the JMA website have been renewed Satellite image/Himawari IR1 via Pagasa MANILA, Philippines — Tropical Storm Dante maintained its strength as of Monday afternoon, state . Read more on inquirer.net Satellite Images. These satellite images are processed by MSS from the Himawari-8 geostationary satellite operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Each image is created from a combination of selected infrared and visible spectral bands of Himawari-8 data. For the non-sunlit areas of the image, a greyscale thermal infrared imagery is used The Himawari-8, hovering 22,000 miles above the Pacific, takes these images every 10 minutes (compared with once every three hours for the U.S. weather satellites, at half the resolution), which.

Pagasa. - Live Satellite Image. Pagasa, Live satellite: (latest image 17' ago - 00:54 local time) Depending on the region, the following satellite images are displayed: 1. Infrared & Precipitation: These images are available day & night. The coloring of clouds displays an estimate of the intensity of precipitation. 2 Satellite images capture first typhoon of season barrelling towards Philippines TYPHOON Vongfong is on course to batter the Philippines with fierce 100mph gusts of wind, with satellites capturing. Tweet with a location. You can add location information to your Tweets, such as your city or precise location, from the web and via third-party applications The geostationary weather satellite, Himawari-8, confirms the cloud is part of a prevailing frontal system over the Pacific Ocean near Japan. Picture 2a (left): An image of the Tohoku area of Japan taken by the medium field-of-view color camera (MFC) on board DIWATA-1, captured at 01:54UT (10:54JST) on May 9, 2016 Check out the daily Typhoon2000 Graphical Satellite Analysis for the summary of tropical systems in and around the Western Pacific & the Philippine Sea. For Global Rainfall Data, click here. You can also view our Tri-Weekly T2K Tropical Weather Analysis at Mr. Typhoon's YouTube Channel. View 2021's 5th Philippine Tropical Cyclone

The Stunning Imagery of Super Typhoon Haima (Lawin

Tropical West Pacific - Visible Loop. This loop intended for informational purposes only! For Emergency situations and/or decisions, please refer to your local Emergency Management Office Himawari-8/9 Mission Schedule •Himawari-8 has stably been operational since July 2015. •Himawari-9, launched in November 2016, began serving as back-up to Himawari-8 on 10 March 2017. •This dual combination of new-generation satellites will support JMA's stable provision of continuous satellite

Himawari-8 Products. Click on a satellite image to enlarge. For full-sized images and other information, click on one of the buttons below The CSU Phil-LiDAR 1 project, also called Flood Hazard Mapping of the Philippines Using liDAR: Caraga Region, is one of several projects under the Phil-LiDAR-1.Hazard Mapping of the Philippines using LiDAR program funded by the Department o f Science and Technology (DOST).Projects under this program are being implemented nationwide by several state universities and colleges (SUCs. Diwata-1 also known as PHL-Microsat-1 was a Philippine microsatellite launched to the International Space Station (ISS) on March 23, 2016, and was deployed into orbit from the ISS on April 27, 2016. It was the first Philippine microsatellite and the first satellite built and designed by Filipinos. It was followed by Diwata-2, launched in 2018

One such spacecraft, the Japanese weather satellite Himawari-8, 2015, the video shows rare and incredible shots of Typhoon Soudelor (known in the Philippines as Typhoon Hanna). Satellite Receiving Facility (Himawari, Modis, FY-2G, NOAA, COMS) 9 5 At Central office, 4 at Field Offices Wind Profiler 1 At Central Office The Philippine Disaster Reduction and Management Act outlines measures aimed at enhancing the country's response capacity prior to, during and after disasters..

100MP images captured by the Himawari 8 weather satellite in geosynchronous orbit over Australia. Multispectral imagery combines visible light photography with Himawari's other sensors for amazing night vision. 24 Hour Time Lapse. Auto-Updating Lockscreen (every 15mins Hi-resolution satellite imagery of Australian weather by Himawari, a geostationary satellite operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and interpreted by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Himawari-8: This imagery is now being generated from Himawari-8 data modified to be emulate the MTSAT imagery previously found on these pages. Our source for this data is not operational and is not 24/7. We will make every effort to keep it available. If you need operational data, please see our Policy on Access and Distribution.More information on the Himawari-8 data is available from the.

Introducing New Satellite Imagery of each Country • Philippines • Australia • Hawaii • Indonesia • Japan Features: • Live Imagery provided by JMA/MSC • Himawari Real-Time Image via CIRA/RAMMB, NOAA NESDIS and CIRA • Integrated Country Place, Date and Time weather image. • 20 Imagery Cycle • Auto-Update every 10 minute Meteorological Satellite Center (MSC) of JMA 2016 Himawari-9 2014 Himawari-8 Meteorological Satellite Center (MSC) of JMA Introduction of Himawari-8 for Typhoon Monitoring 2016.2 Philippines 2016.4 Micronesia 2016.4 Palau 2016.6 Bhutan 2016.9 Fiji 2016.9 Vanuatu 2016.11 Papua New Guinea 2016.11 Mongoli TALISAY, PHILIPPINES — The eruption of Taal volcano in the Philippines was so big that it was visible from space.Japanese satellite Himawari-8 captured a series of images from space showing plumes of smoke from the volcano that erupted on January 12, according to Live Science. The images were put together to create an animation and were released by NASA's Earth Observatory The Japanese geostationary weather satellite Himawari-8 has been used by Philippine warning agencies for monitoring purposes for the past few years. Now, Filipinos can Read More HUDCC, DOST-ASTI's CSD facilitate HBMES end-user trainin

LOOK: Typhoon Ompong, Metro Manila at night | ABS-CBN News

Himawari-8 Real-time Web - NIC

Be sure that the satellite is set to Himawari-8 for the western Pacific. Where you see the dropdown (S)atellite menu, change it from Goes-16 to Himawari-8. Edited July 21, 2017 by BossHo This June 23, 2019 photo shows the satellite image of the Philippines captured by Japanese Himawari satellite. PAGASA/Released LPA enters Philippine Area of Responsibility, may become tropical. Active Mosaic Satellite, HIMAWARi1 and Wind Map RADAR (courtesy of DOST-PAGASA and Natural Earth, NOAA and himawari.nict.go.jp

Philippines volcano eruption: Satellite images show steam

Philippines Zoom Eart

cyclones in the Philippine Sea are shown in this color image from the Advanced Himawari Imager aboard the JAXA Himawari-8 satellite, from August 21st, 2018 National Himawari-8 Training Campaign summary (January to 27th October 2015 - Google Analytics) • Attendees to the 15 Tutorial Sessions • Hits on the National Himawari-8 Training Campaign web page Hawaii 6 214 South Korea 16 413 New Zealand 6 238 Vanuatu 48 Solomon Islands 2 39 Australia 82 11911 Philippines 4 50 Indonesia 18 445. For the eruption of volcanoes, for example, the satellite can observe the extension of volcanic plume on visible imagery, and the increase of surface temperature on ifrared imagery. Here we study an example of an eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, Luzon Island, the Philippines, that started on 13:42 (local time) on June 15, 1991 The eruption of Taal volcano, south of Manila, Philippines, in an image made available by Himawari-8 satellite via the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on Jan. 12, 2020. NOAA/A Pagasa warns of moderate to strong rains due to Habagat, monsoon trough. Share. Flip. Like. inquirer.net - Gabriel Pabico Lalu • Now. Satellite image/Himawari IR1 via Pagasa MANILA, Philippines — There is a high chance that huge parts of Luzon and Visayas may experience moderate to . Read more on inquirer.net. Philippines

DOST-ASTI provides faster access to Japanese satellite

The satellite imagery was originally captured by the Multi-functional Transport Satellite-2 (MTSAT-2) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Observation for full-disk Himawari satellite imagery is performed every 10 minutes, while observation for the Japan area and the target area is performed every 2.5 minutes The companion app to ARKO (the mobile app for flood, storm surge, and landslide hazard maps), the NOAH Android app features a user-friendly interface that allows you to view near real time weather information, which can help prevent and mitigate disasters. This mobile app was developed by Rolly Rulete in cooperation with UP NOAH, with the.

Super Typhoon Mangkhut makes landfall in the Philippines

Satellite Maps. Japan Meteorological Agency's (JMA) Himawari Satellite is a geostationary satellite, meaning it hovers on the same spot on Earth anytime, used for meteorological functions covering East Asia and the Western Paciific Ocean. Himawari provides information to more than 30 countries and territories in the region, includin Image: Smoke off the west coast of Borneo and dueling tropical cyclones in the Philippine Sea are shown in this color image from the Advanced Himawari Imager aboard the JAXA Himawari-8 satellite, from August 21st, 2018. (Credit: CIRA/CSU and JAXA/NOAA/NASA Mesoscale Convective Systems in the Asian Monsoon Region From Advanced Himawari Imager: Algorithms and Preliminary Results Dandan Chen 1, Jianping Guo , Dan Yao1, Yanluan Lin2, Chuanfeng Zhao3, Min Min4, Hui Xu1, Lin Liu1, Xiaomeng Huang2, Tianmeng Chen3, and Panmao Zhai1 1State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China, 2Ministry o