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Hieroglyphics era belong

Like cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphs were used for record-keeping, but also for monumental display dedicated to royalty and deities. The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek hieros 'sacred' and gluptien 'carved in stone'. The last known hieroglyph inscription was 394 C.E. Other scripts used to write Egyptian were developed over time What era does hieroglyphics belong - 7058509 1is the art of beautiful handwriting in China . 2. is technique for printing text , images, or patterns used widely throughout East Asia 3

Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs overview - Smarthistor

what era does hieroglyphics belonga

  1. Several rock slabs were found with paintings and inscriptions on them, which date back to the late Predynastic period (roughly 3,500 to 3,000 B.C) of prehistoric Egypt. According to Darnell, the..
  2. The main difference between Petroglyph and Hieroglyph is that the Petroglyph is a pictogram and logogram images carved on a rock surface and Hieroglyph is a pictographic sign. Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art. Outside North America, scholars often.
  3. This period coincides with the biblical return from exile and the postexilic time. The Aramaic letters of the book of Ezra relating to rebuilding the Temple in Jerusalem (4:8-6:18; 7:12-26) belong also to this period. Despite the span of time and the geographical spread, the language of this period shows a striking homogeneity
  4. The earliest known hieroglyphic writing also dates to this period. In the Archaic Period, as in all other periods, most ancient Egyptians were farmers living in small villages, and agriculture..
  5. ence of that area with the capital of Dynasty 26 at Sais. From the seventh century B.C., Egyptian rulers encouraged a flourishing Mediterranean trade involving.

It is generally accepted that the term Shasu means nomads or Bedouin people, referring primarily to the nomadic or semi-nomadic peoples of Syria-Palestine. There are two significant hieroglyphic references in New Kingdom period texts to an area called 'the land of the Shasu of Yahweh. The mummies used were from the New Kingdom and a later period, (a period later than the Middle Kingdom) when Egypt was under Roman rule. Modern Egyptians share 8% of their genome with central Africans, far more than ancient ones, according to the study, published in the journal Nature Communications The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek hieros (sacred) plus glypho (inscriptions) and was first used by Clement of Alexandria. The earliest known examples of writing in Egypt have been dated to 3,400 BC. The latest dated inscription in hieroglyphs was made on the gate post of a temple at Philae in 396 AD Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs Hieroglyphics were typically carved on walls, tombs, monuments and other places made of stone or brick. They were primarily learned and used by priests and scribes. The latter went through special training to learn hieroglyphics Rosetta Stone, ancient Egyptian stone bearing inscriptions in several languages and scripts; their decipherment led to the understanding of hieroglyphic writing. It was found in 1799 near the town of Rosetta (Rashid), about 35 miles northeast of Alexandria

When rap historians look back on the 1990's, the rise fall and rebirth of the collective called Hieroglyphics will be recorded as among it's most significant events. This irony can't be lost on a crew whose name evokes the image of Egyptian symbolic transcription The Rosetta Stone and Ancient Egyptian For centuries, before the Rosetta Stone was discovered, scholars tried to interpret hieroglyphs, but they could not because they thought that hieroglyphs were primitive picture writing, and that their decipherment relied on a literal translation of the image Hieroglyphs are writing systems that use iconic symbols to communicate messages. Multiple ancient cultures used hieroglyphs, but the most famous variety are Egyptian hieroglyphs. There have been numerous encounters with hieroglyphs throughout Lost. Damon Lindelof indicated in Access: Granted that the symbols are used because there are many interpretations of hieroglyphics [sic], that's what.

The Name Yahweh in Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts. It is generally accepted that the term Shasu means nomads or Bedouin people, referring primarily to the nomadic or semi-nomadic peoples of Syria-Palestine. There are two significant hieroglyphic references in New Kingdom period texts to an area called 'the land of the Shasu of Yahweh.'. Except for. You've just come across Real Estate Mapping Faux Pas #7: Mapping Hieroglyphics. Create a Better User Experience When Using Real Estate Maps. Mapping Hieroglyphics occurs when a well-intentioned map is overloaded with too many symbols, complex mapping words, useless widgets and other overwhelming clutter that does not belong on a map

Hieroglyphic writing died out in Egypt in the fourth century C.E.. Over time the knowledge of how to read hieroglyphs was lost, until the discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799 and its subsequent decipherment. The Stone is a tablet of black rock called granodiorite. It is part of a larger inscribed stone that would have stood some 2 meters high Geoffrey Sampson stated that Egyptian hieroglyphs came into existence a little after Sumerian script, and, probably, [were] invented under the influence of the latter, and that it is probable that the general idea of expressing words of a language in writing was brought to Egypt from Sumerian Mesopotamia Thomas Young (1773-1829), an English physicist, was one of the first to show that some of the hieroglyphs on the Rosetta Stone wrote the sounds of a royal name, that of Ptolemy. A letter from Thomas Young written on 10 February 1818 asking William Bankes to seek out these hieroglyphic examples whilst in Egypt Hieroglyphs the most ancient pictorial symbols of Egyptian writing, used from the end of the fourth millennium B.C. (as distinct from the hieratic and demotic scripts). About 5,000 different Egyptian hieroglyphs are known, although no more than 700-800 were used in each era Luwian Hieroglyphics. The Hittite Empire encompassed much of Anatolia and northern Syria during the Late Bronze Age (ca 1600-1200 BCE), but apart from a few references to the Hatti in the Bible, it was largely lost to historians until its re-discovery during the modern era. The first elements of Hittite civilization identified by W.

Original Question: Did the system of hieroglyphs from Khufu's period remain comprehensible to Egyptians of Ramses II's period centuries later? Yes, indeed they did. Although hieroglyphs were constantly being added to over the centuries so although.. Hieroglyphic script developed in Egypt . 2000 BCE. Minoan hieroglyphic script is invented. 196 BCE. The Rosetta Stone was made, a stela carrying a priestly decree from the reign of Ptolemy V in three languages: Egyptian hieroglyphs, demotic and Greek script . 1822 CE Some of the ornaments were found on rock paintings on pottery vessels, Which belong to pre-family cultures Early in Egypt, this is particularly noticeable during the period of Naqada II 3500 - 3200 BC, where the vessels were buried in tombs, and in the 3. tombs of the third Naqada period 3200-3000 BC

There are two significant hieroglyphic references in New Kingdom Period texts to an area called the land of the Shasu of Yahweh. 1 Except for the Old Testament, these are the oldest references found in any ancient texts to the God Yahweh. The purpose of this paper is to study these two references and assess their possible importance in. Amun (amoon, Amon, Amen, Imen) - The Hidden One, the King of the Gods during the New Kingdom. His main center of worship was Thebes (Waset) and he was thus the patron of the House of Thebes, the ruling family of the 18th dynasty. That is, until Akhenaten rejected him. In hieroglyphs, Amun is written as follows: I-mn-n Pyramids of Unas, Teti and Pepi II - all of who were of the Old Kingdom era - had hieroglyphic texts that cast enormous light on the principle and funerary literature of the ancient Egyptians. Maspero followed his 1882 publication (in the Recueil des Travaux ) of his findings with his 1894 corpora of the text titled Les inscriptions des. Cretan hieroglyphs predate Linear A by almost a century. These two writing systems were used in parallel for most of their history. Cretan hieroglyphs are perhaps a type of ideographic, possibly with a syllabic component. The time period (2100-1700 BC) of these scripts makes it hard to decode and solve the mystery. 7 At the ancient site of Huqoq, near the Sea of Galilee in modern Israel, a number of stunning mosaics depicting biblical, astrological, and historical narratives have been uncovered in a Jewish village that flourished during the late Roman empire. The colorful and large number of mosaics found in a synagogue challenge traditional views about Jewish art of the period as symbolic rather than.

In hieroglyphics or hieratic, therefore, one is only likely to encounter either Middle Egyptian or the earlier literary form of the language, Old Egyptian, the language spoken in the Archaic Period (I & II Dynasties, c. 3100-2680) and the Old Kingdom (III-VI Dynasties, 2680-2159) The hieroglyphic writing system is invented in the protodynastic period but symbols used on Gerzean (Naqada II) pottery resemble the traditional hieroglyph writing. Painted pottery and figurines, ivory carvings and cosmetics in the form of slate palettes are found for the first time in predynastic Egypt The Classic Period is considered a time of booming change in Mesoamerica. Distinct from the Preclassic and the later Postclassic in many, many aspects, it represents a period of time in which civilizations flourished and grew in unprecedented ways. The dates given for the Classic period in most of Mesoamerica are from AD 250 t

Real Estate Mapping Faux Pas #7 is what we like to call mapping hieroglyphics.Mapping hieroglyphics occurs when you come across a great real estate website complete with an interactive map, you think how great it is that so many real estate companies are embracing consumer mapping needs and adding maps to their website Using hieroglyphics for number 1, multiples of number 10. which was known in that era as the Hieroglyphic font. Ancient inscriptions that belong to the Pharonic Egypt confirm that ancient Egypt had witnessed extraordinary phenomena represented in perfectly-finished musical instruments which were made since the beginning of times A line of rulers who belong to the same family. Old Kingdom. period in Egyptian history that lasted for about 500 years from about 2700 to 2200 B.C. The Great Pyramids and the Sphinx were created during this time A huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand. One of the most important objects purchased, whether for royalty or other elites, for a tomb was the coffin. It's purpose from the earliest times was the protection of the body, preserving it from deterioration or mutilation. During Predynastic times, the Egyptians shrouded corpses in mats or furs and enclosed them in pots, baskets or clay coffins

Video: Hieroglyphics Language: The History of Ancient Egypt by

The era of the pharaohs faded as Egypt became easy prey for invading armies with more advanced law was written in hieroglyphics and demotic scripts. Hieroglyphics was the sacred writing Rosetta Stone belong not to their home nation but to all of humanity. Name: Period Between 3000/2600 and 1450, the period of the birth and development of Cretan Hieroglyphic and Linear A, [] the introduction of a language known to us from elsewhere is unlikely.[5]After an idea since 1978 and almost 10 years of research, Kenanidis (1992) published (in Modern Greek) a study connecting the phonetic values of the linear. Period glyphs, however, do occur in Dresden (p. 140; figs. 26,13,14,32,40,48,57; 42,43-53). IS without period glyphs are not confined to Dresden, for one IS of this type is sculptured in stone (Pestac 1) and records the date 9.11.12.9. 1 Ahau 8 Cumku

The somewhat static, usually formal, strangely abstract, and often blocky nature of much Egyptian imagery has, at times, led to unfavorable comparisons with later, and much more 'naturalistic,' Greek or Renaissance art. However, the art of the Egyptians served a vastly different purpose than that of these later cultures The term, cartouche is a relatively modern one coined by the soldiers of Napoleon's expedition in Egypt, who saw in the sign the likeness of the cartridges, or cartouche used in their own guns. The cartouche, known in ancient Egypt as the shenu, is derived from the Egyptian verb, Sheni, which means to encircle A system of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds, syllables, or concepts. It was used for official and monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt. Because of the long period of study required to master this system, literacy in hieroglyphics was confined to a relatively small group of scribes and administrators In concluding the presentation of these three numbers the writer may express the opinion that a careful study of the period glyphs in figures 58-60 will lead to the following conclusions: (1) That the six periods recorded in the first, the seven in the second, and the eight or nine in the third, all belong to the same series in each case; and.

Egyptian hieroglyphs - Wikipedi

It is therefore impossible to incorporate this period in this discussion. 30th dynasty shabti groupsThe 30 th dynasty (380-343 B.C.) is the last dynasty to include shabti groups from Saqqara. Three shabti groups can be securely dated to this period, which belong to Tjahorpata, Neferka, and Imhotep (Figure 3) Hieratic, a cursive writing system based on hieroglyphs, was the most commonly used Egyptian script from the Old Kingdom (2675-2170 b.c.e.) to the beginning of the Late Period about 664 b.c.e. Scribes used cursive hieroglyphs, a writing of hieroglyphs that included fewer interior details in each sign, for writing the Book of the Dead The inscriptions herein described are found throughout the region formerly occupied by the Maya people (pl. 1), though by far the greater number have been discovered at the southern, or older, sites.This is due in part, at least, to the minor role played by sculpture as an independent art among the northern Maya, for in the north architecture gradually absorbed in its decoration the sculptural. After a concise introduction, the chapter considers texts of varying length as examples of the literature that was written in hieroglyphs during the period of Roman rule in Egypt. The translated texts belong to the sphere of religious literature: litanies, hymns to several deities, and myths of creation. Other texts, more secular ones, contain descriptions of buildings and festivals or deal. Mar 19, 2016 - Express your thoughts in any language including Hieroglyphics!. See more ideas about hieroglyphics, ancient egyptian, egyptian art

The Hieroglyphic Alphabet (With Facts) - Give Me Histor

The heart was seen as the home of the spirit, and the bodily element of the ancient Egyptian soul.In the Hall of Judgement, it was the heart which was weighed against the feather of Ma'at.If a person failed this test they would be devoured by Ammit, if they passed they would go on to enjoy a blissful afterlife.Unsurprisingly, the Egyptians were keen to protect their heart Denisova hominins (/dɨˈniːsəvə/), or Denisovans, are Paleolithic-Era members of the genus Homo that may belong to a previously unknown species. The Venus of Willendorf is a 4.4-inch tall carving discovered in Willendorf, Austria MAPEH Grade 9 - Arts - Architecture from the Early Age, Classical Period and Medieval Period - First Quarter 1. Architecture from the Early Age Prepared by: Daniel M. Alcazarin Science Teacher I Talangan Integrated National High School 2 Anubis is ancient Egyptian god of the dead and mummification. In the Old Kingdom, prayers on various stelae and mastaba tombs were addressed directly to him. In time, he was overshadowed by the god Osiris and became associated with him.1 1 Anubis's heritage is unsure 2 Lord of the dead 3 Embalmer 4 Anubis in modern culture 5 External links 6 References Anubis's heritage is one of debate. 4.) Almost none of the numerous types from the Early Egyptian period, which were no longer used after that, are listed in general registers. These types are catalogued in Jochen Kahl, Das System der ägyptischen Hieroglyphenschrift in der 0.-3. Dynastie, Wiesbaden 1994 (The system of Egyptian hieroglyphic script letters in the 0-3rddynasty)

The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately followed the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt around 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. During the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Abydos to. Hieroglyphic writing is a system that employs characters in the form of pictures. These individual signs, called hieroglyphs, may be read either as pictures, as symbols for pictures, or as symbols for sounds. The name 'hieroglyphic' (from the Greek word for sacred carving) is first encountered in the writings of Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC) IV. The so-called Saïte version, in which, at some period anterior probably to the XXVIth dynasty, the chapters were arranged in a definite order. It is commonly written in hieroglyphics and in hieratic, and it was much used from the XXVIth dynasty to the end of the Ptolemaic period. Early forms of the Book of the Dead. The Book of the Dead

How the Alphabet Was Born from Hieroglyph

The stone, carved during the Hellenistic period The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic script and Demotic script, respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek. As the decree has only minor differences between the three versions, the Rosetta Stone proved to be the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs Do I need to have any experience with hieroglyphs? No. This program is intended for beginners and more advanced students. Everyone will belong to his/her own small cohort of students at the same level (e.g., beginners will work together). I customize the content for the level of each cohort. When does it start? We start January 13, 2020 Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Essay on Dr Young's and M Champollion's Phonetic System of Hieroglyphics : With Some Additional Dis by Henry Salt (2009, Trade Paperback) at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products The hieroglyphic texts which follow the Introduction include examples of the chief divisions of Egyptian literature, historical, funeral, religious, moral, mythological, etc., and the aim has been to give passages which are at once interesting and complete in themselves. The translations have been made as literal as possible

The Hieroglyphic Writing of the Ancient Egyptians

The connection between hieroglyphics and emoji - systems of communication separated by thousands of years - is the subject of an intriguing new exhibition at the Israel Museum. The curators. this name refers to the extant sum of Mayan hieroglyphic inscriptions preserved on stone monuments and a number of other media (ceramic vessels, mural paintings, architectural elements, portable artifacts of bone, shell and wood, etc.), the vast majority of which belong to the Classic period (250-900 AD), and with the exception of th Semitic or Hemitic: The ancient Egyptian language, which was the origin of the Coptic language, was one of the groups of languages scholars have classified as Hemito- Semitic. 1 This classification includes as well ancient Egyptian, Semitic, Berber, and Cushitic. The philologists who agree with this classification discovered that the ancient Egyptian language consisted of two elements: Semitic.

Period/Era when it was created Egyptian Era Classical Period 3. Materials Used Limestone and stucco Marble 4. The use of elements of arts (lines, shape, color, texture) It uses modern colors Intricate shape 5. The distinctive characteristics of the artwork. A symbol of it strong women Religious, everyday life scene The Rosetta Stone —Key to Egyptian Hieroglyphics. IT WAS the year 1799. Four miles from the small Egyptian town of Rashid, or Rosetta, a corps of French soldiers was hard at work making alterations on Fort Julien. Thrown onto the defensive by the victory of the British fleet under Nelson, the French army under Napoleon was preparing for a.

Clothing. Japanese Hieroglyphs. Shop Japanese Hieroglyphs clothing on Redbubble in confidence. T-shirts, hoodies, tops, dresses, skirts, and more in a huge range of styles, colors, and sizes (XS - 5XL). Whether you wear women's clothing or men's clothing you'll find the original artwork that's perfect for you The meaning of many Maya hieroglyphs is known from 16th century sources. Twenty day hieroglyphs and 18 month hieroglyphs were translated in the work of Diego de Landa (Toz-zer 1941). Landa also transmits the name in Spanish letters of each day in the month corre-sponding to the hieroglyphs. In other manu-scripts of the colonial period, there. Hieroglyphs script: Time period: 3000 - 1000 BC. From the first family to the end of the modern era in Egypt, the Egyptian writing became the prerogative of priests and clerics and it seemed as if it was specific to religious matters and therefore it was called sacred or hieroglyphic writing The Middle Kingdom in Egypt was followed by what is known as the Hyksos period (the XVth-XVIIth dynasties: 17th-16th centuries B.C.E.). In the Hyksos period, Canaanites ruled Egypt. (This period is sometimes cited as a model for Joseph's rise to power in Egypt, as described in Genesis 37-47.) As noted earlier, the Hyksos capital at Tell.

hieroglyphic writing - Relationship of writing and art

The oldest source is a seal impression of the name of Narmer followed by the hieroglyphic sign mn.While some Egyptologists have interpreted this source as providing Narmer 's birth name, Men and thus as proof that Menes is to be identified with Narmer, others have pointed out that for similar seals dated to Aha, the name of the king is combined with different other names The use of hieroglyphics died out after the 4th century and the writing system became an enigma to scholars. British scientist Thomas Young, who began studying the Rosetta Stone's texts in 1814. The geography of Ancient Egypt was an interesting concept from the perspective of the ancient Egyptians themselves. They believed their country was divided into two distinct geographical sections, the black land (the fertile banks of the river Nile) and the red land (the barren desert that covered the rest of the country) He claims that the hieroglyphs are ungrammatical and misspelt (with the sign for 'ra', the supreme god of Egypt, being written instead of 'kh'), that the cursive script in which they were written dates from a later era, and that they were copied (complete with mistakes) from standard contemporary works on hieroglyphics

Middle Babylonian Period (1595 - 1000 BC) The Kassite Dynasty, Kadashman-Enlil I and Burnaburiash II, Kurigalzu II, Elam and Assyria, Dur Kurigalzu a New Capital, The Kudurru, Nebuchadnezzar I, The Aramaeans, The Culture. Neo Babylonian Period (1000 - 539 BC MessageToEagle.com - There are many remarkable ancient artifacts that could re-write history as we know it.These artifacts are highly controversial. We are constantly finding new artifacts that defy our current understanding of history. Among the many jewels, mens wedding bands, pottery and weapons found we find items that can confuse even the most experienced archaeologists The golden mask of Tut is the most famous and admired artifacts of ancient Egypt in history and the world. It is the funerary death mask of the Egyptian pharaoh King Tutankamun (1332-1323 BC) of the 18 th dynasty. The mask is made of 11kg (24p) of solid gold and is inlaid with blue glass, lapis lazuli, and various semiprecious stones

Ancient Egypt: 3,500 Year Old Rock Art with Early form of

The phonetic sound value of each and every hieroglyphic picture's expressed and intended meaning as a verb or as a noun by the creators of the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic picture symbols, 'exactly matches', the same meaning as well as the first letter of the corresponding meaning of the Turkish word's first syllable with the currently spoken dialects of the Turkish language A quantity of faience hieroglyphs and border elements was found in the tomb or courtyard of Nespekashuty. These are displayed in galleries 127 and 130. They are of similar size and manufacture, so seem to have belonged to a single object, likely of wood So we read X-*62-*56. But there the line takes an abrupt break. The vertical line before the glove-like sign *09 is actually a word-divider (Hiero style), and thus the reading should be continued from there: *09-*36-*47. This is exactly what the direction of the little dots suggest (the dot of *36 was displaced to the right probably because it. The Old Testament is the period from creation (4000 BC) to the period of the Persian Empire and Cyrus who allowed the Jews to return from captivity and rebuild their temple. The Old Testament ended around 400 BC. After reading this summary follow along on the right-hand side and learn about the main events that took place in Old Testament times By the Old Kingdom, coffins were rectangular boxes with flat lids. They were painted and inscribed in hieroglyphs with four important features: the deceased's name and titles; a list of food offerings; a false door through which the ka could pass; and eyes through which the deceased could see outside the coffin. The body was placed in the.

Petroglyph vs. Hieroglyph - What's the difference? Ask ..

{iii} LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, D. C., January 7, 1914. Sir: I have the honor to submit the accompanying manuscript of a memoir bearing the title An Introduction to the Study of the Maya Hieroglyphs, by Sylvanus Griswold Morley, and to recommend its publication as a bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology It was a period, in which any text on the hieroglyphs attracted almost ecstaticly the attention of especially French and English scholars, competing eagerly to be the first to 'crack' the code. Hammer refers to this French-British rivalry in his introduction by remarking with slight contempt to the French Savans, who, though successful.

Four Hebrew Scripts: Mosaic, Hieroglyphic, Paleo, Aramaic

The temple of Luxor is situated on the east bank of the River Nile in the town of Luxor (Thebes). The temple was known as ipet resyt (the southern harem) and it was founded during the New Kingdom, around 1400 BC.. The temple is dedicated to Amun, Mut, and Khonsu and was the focus of one of the most important religious festivals in ancient Egypt - the annual Opet Festival Akhenaten came to power as the pharaoh of Egypt in either the year 1353 or 1351 BCE and reigned for roughly 17 years during the 18th dynasty of Egypt's New Kingdom. Akhenaten became best known to modern scholars for the new religion he created that centered on the Aten. In Akhenaten's new religion, this figure generally came to be represented. The History of Chichen Itza reflects a glorious past, typical of a ceremonial center where most of the life of a civilization took a decisive course. The archaeological site of Chichen Itza was a Mayan city from the period between the years 525, when it was founded, and 1,200, when they fell into a rapid [ date: Persian or Ptolemaic Period-- Hieroglyphic text, (partial) transliteration in Coptic letters and (partial) French translation in: Jean François Champollion, Monuments de l'Égypte et de la Nubie: notices descriptives conformes aux manuscrits autographes rédigés sur les lieux par Champollion le Jeune, vol. 2, Paris After this, came an Intermediate Period until the Ptolemaic Era (323-30 BCE) and the period of Roman rule (30 BCE - 395 CE). Ancient Egyptian civilization is symbolized by the Pyramids, most of which were constructed during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods, when the Pharaoh's power was absolute

The name of one Kerma ruler is known from an Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription found at Buhen, which was occupied in the Second Intermediate Period by the Kerma culture: the name is Nedjeh (nDH, on stela Khartoum Museum 18). As far as is known from the archaeological record, the Kerma culture did not develop its own writing system Sacred carvings and an ancient picture-writing system created by the Egyptians in which pictorial symbols represent sound, concepts and objects or a combination of these. They are phonetic and pictographic signs integrated with abstract and observational drawings. Colour was also used symbolically The Hittite era too, witnessed glorious times in Alacahöyük. The remains, the most impressive of which are the sphinxes guarding the gate, belong to the Hittite Empire period (1450-1180 BC). Either side of the gate is decorated with reliefs (the originals are kept in Ankara) depicting religious ceremonies